|Back to article|
Other Health Effects of Smoking:
Smoking increases the risk for:
Just over 45 million people, or about 19% of adults in the United States, currently smoke, according to a 2011 report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking rates dropped by nearly 1% -- or 3 million people -- between 2005 and 2010.
Heavy smoking (a pack-a-day habit) is also down from a few decades ago. Back in 1965, close to 23% of Americans were heavy smokers. Today, only about 7% smoke 20 cigarettes a day or more. California has been especially successful at reducing heavy smoking rates, in part due to smoking cessation programs and smoke-free environments.
These reductions in overall smoking are good news, but smoking is still a big health problem. It kills 443,000 people a year in the United States, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 5 deaths.
Fewer teens are smoking today than in the late 1990s, but the decrease in teen smoking rates has been slower in recent years. Today 46% of high school students have ever smoked, down from 70% in 1991. The number of frequent smokers (defined as 20 or more cigarettes a month) dropped from about 13% in 1991 to 7% in 2009.
The younger children start smoking, the more likely they will smoke as adults. Smoking can become addictive very quickly. According to the American Cancer Society, the earlier you start smoking, the more likely you are to develop long-term nicotine addiction.
In the past, advertising played a major role in encouraging some teens to smoke. New regulations have made it much more difficult for advertisers to promote smoking to young people. However, scenes that show people smoking, often in a positive way, are still common in movies and television shows. This may be a major influence on the attitude toward smoking in children and adolescents.
Research has found that parents can discourage their children from smoking by:
Doctors can also have a major effect on their young patients' smoking habits. However, less than half of teenagers say their doctors have ever asked them if they smoke (even though most teen smokers said they would admit to smoking if asked) or given them counseling on how to quit. Counseling may be of particular importance, considering that teens who smoke are more likely to attempt suicide than their non-smoking peers.Gender, Age, and Ethnicity
While the percentage of adults over age 65 who smoke is lower than the percentage of smokers in other age groups, older adults usually have smoked for a long time (about 40 years) and tend to be heavier smokers, according to the American Lung Association. Because of this, older smokers are more likely to have smoking-related illnesses.
Among students (under age 18), Caucasians are more likely to smoke than Hispanics and African-Americans. The rate of smoking is highest among people of mixed race, followed by American Indians and Alaskan natives. Asians have the lowest smoking rates.Geography
In general, the rate of smoking is highest in the Midwest and South and lowest in the Northeast and West. Utah has the lowest smoking rate in the United States.Educational Level
People who have not graduated from high school or received their General Education Development (GED) certificate are more likely to smoke than those who attended college. The lowest smoking rates are in people with advanced graduate degrees.Psychological and Physical Factors
Men and women with mental or physical disorders are about 50% more likely to smoke than people without such illnesses. Factors that can influence smoking include:
Having depression increases the likelihood that someone will smoke, and decreases their likelihood of quitting. Twice as many adults with depression are current smokers, compared to those without depression. The more severe their depression, the more likely people are to smoke.Genetic Factors
Evidence strongly supports the idea that genes play a role in a person's dependence on nicotine. Researchers are now targeting specific genes that may be responsible for nicotine dependence. The same genes may be responsible for both nicotine and alcohol dependence.Economic Factors
Some studies suggest that smoking becomes more widespread when it is cheaper to buy cigarettes. For example, states that have low taxes on cigarettes have a high proportion of smokers. Making it more expensive to smoke may reduce the number of smokers.
Nicotine is the chemical in cigarettes that makes them addictive. About 85% of smokers are addicted to nicotine. Higher levels of nicotine in a cigarette can make it harder to quit smoking. The amount of nicotine in cigarettes has steadily increased in the past decade. Higher nicotine levels have been found in all cigarette categories, including "light" brands.
Some researchers feel nicotine is as addictive as heroin. In fact, nicotine has actions similar to heroin and cocaine, and it affects the same area of the brain as these drugs.
Depending on the amount taken in, nicotine can act as either a stimulant or a sedative.
Cigarette smoking produces mental effects very quickly. For example, it can:
Most smokers have a special fondness for the first cigarette of the day because of the way brain cells respond to the day's first nicotine rush. Nicotine, particularly in those first few cigarettes, increases the activity of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that elicits pleasurable sensations. This feeling is similar to getting a reward.
Over the course of a day, however, the nerve cells become desensitized to nicotine. Smoking becomes less pleasurable, and smokers may need to increase their intake to get their "reward." A smoker develops tolerance to these effects very quickly and requires increasingly higher levels of nicotine.Smokeless Tobacco
Smokeless tobacco, also called spit tobacco, includes chewing tobacco (dip and chew), tobacco powder (snuff), as well as flavored tobacco lozenges. These products also contain nicotine.
With smokeless tobacco products, tobacco is absorbed by the digestive system or through mucus membranes. Smokeless tobacco contains at least 28 cancer-causing substances, and is not a safe substitute for smoking cigarettes or cigars. According to the National Institutes of Health, chewing on an average-sized piece of chewing tobacco for 30 minutes can deliver as much nicotine as smoking three cigarettes.
Smokeless tobacco is addictive, and evidence suggests that it increases the risk of oral cancer, gingivitis, and tooth loss. The risk of cancer in people who use smokeless tobacco is lower than that of smokers, but it is still higher than that of people who do not use tobacco at all. Using smokeless tobacco also seems to increase the risk of fatal heart attacks and strokes.Pipes and Cigars
Pipe and cigar smoking are on the rise. Because pipe and cigar smokers often don't inhale, the common misperception is that they don't face as substantial a health risk as cigarette smokers. Yet research finds that smoking pipes or cigars causes harmful health effects similar to those of cigarettes.
People who smoke pipes or cigars are at greater risk for lung damage and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), even if they never smoked cigarettes.
One type of pipe -- the water pipe (also known as a "hookah") -- is gaining popularity among college students, in part because of the mistaken belief that it is less harmful than regular cigarettes. Yet studies have found that smoking a water pipe carries the same risks as smoking cigarettes, including lung cancer, other lung disorders, and gum disease.
Smoking -- even just a few cigarettes a day -- has been linked to many serious health risks. Up to half of all current tobacco users will die from a tobacco-related disease, many of which are discussed below.Effects on the Lungs
According to the American Lung Association, smoking is directly responsible for about 90% of the deaths due to lung cancer. The good news is that as smoking rates have declined, lung cancer rates have dropped too. In men, there were about 3% fewer cases of lung cancer in 2008 than in 2005. The risk in women fell by a little over 2% during the same time period.
Smoking is also responsible for most deaths due to COPD, which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. And smoking makes it harder to control asthma, by interfering with the response to steroid medicine and worsening lung function.Cardiovascular Effects
Smoking, chewing tobacco, and being exposed to secondhand smoke all greatly increase the risk for heart attacks and strokes. The risk for heart problems in people who smoke or who are exposed to smoke may be three times greater than that of people who don't smoke. When people stop smoking, their risk of having a heart attack decreases over time.
Smoking also significantly increases the risk for peripheral artery disease, which damages the blood vessels in the legs and can lead to disability and amputation.Effects on Male Fertility and Erectile Dysfunction
Smoking can harm a man's sexuality and fertility. Heavy smoking contributes to erectile dysfunction by decreasing the amount of blood flowing into the penis.
Smoking impairs sperm motility, reduces sperm lifespan, and may cause genetic changes that can affect a man's offspring. Men who smoke have less success with fertility treatments. They also have a lower sex drive and less frequent sex.Effects on Female Infertility, Pregnancy, and Childbirth
Studies have linked cigarette smoking to infertility in women, and to health problems in their babies.
Negative effects of smoking include:
Pregnancy complications that are more common in smokers include:
Smoking further increases the risk to the mother and unborn child in high-risk pregnancies.
Effects on the Unborn Child. Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for:
Some women have genes that may make them especially likely to deliver low-birth-weight infants if they smoke, although newborns of all female smokers are at greater risk for low birth weight. The good news is that women who stop smoking before becoming pregnant or during their first trimester of pregnancy reduce their risk of having a low-birth-weight baby to that of women who never smoked.
Women who want to become pregnant should make every attempt to stop smoking, and they should use smoking cessation aids before they try to conceive. Government guidelines recommend that doctors ask all of their pregnant patients about their tobacco use, and offer counseling to those patients who do smoke. After birth, if new mothers cannot quit, they should at least be sure not to smoke in the same room as their infant.
Pregnant women also need to avoid being around people who are smoking. Women who are exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy are 23% more likely to have a stillborn baby and 14% more likely to have a baby with a birth defect than women who are not exposed to secondhand smoke.Effects on Bones and Joints
Smoking has many harmful effects on bones and joints:
Smoking may increase the risk of developing diabetes or glucose intolerance, a condition that precedes diabetes.Smoking and the Gastrointestinal Tract
Smoking increases acid production in the stomach. It also reduces blood flow and the production of compounds that protect the stomach lining. This combination of effects increases the risk for certain gastrointestinal conditions.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Smoking has mixed effects on inflammatory bowel disease, the collective term for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Smokers have lower-than-average rates of ulcerative colitis, but higher-than-average rates of Crohn's disease. Smokers with Crohn's disease who quit smoking have less severe symptoms than those who continue to smoke.
Colorectal cancer. Smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer and aggressive colon polyps, which are considered precursors to colon cancer. Cigarette smoking is also a known risk factor for pancreatic and gastric cancers.
Hepatitis and Cirrhosis. Smoking is linked to increased liver scarring (cirrhosis) from excessive drinking or chronic hepatitis B or C viruses.Smoking and Other Types of Cancer
Bladder Cancer. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer, which is diagnosed in about 70,000 Americans each year. The risk of bladder cancer among smokers may be even higher than was once thought. Current smokers are four times as likely to get the disease than non-smokers, and former smokers face double the risk of bladder cancer. Both female and male smokers face similar odds of getting bladder cancer.
Prostate Cancer. Men who smoke at the time of their diagnosis with prostate cancer fare much worse than non-smokers. Smokers are 61% more likely to see their prostate cancer return, and twice as likely to die from their cancer than men who never smoked. Men who quit smoking 10 years before their diagnosis are at the same risk as those who never smoked.Smoking and Thyroid Disease
Cyanide, a chemical found in tobacco smoke, interferes with thyroid hormone production. Smoking triples the risk for developing thyroid disease, particularly hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). Smoking has also been linked to goiter, a swelling of the thyroid that occurs in people who do not get enough iodine.
Smokers are at increased risk for heart and circulatory problems and delayed wound healing after surgery. Quitting smoking significantly lowers the risk of these complications. The longer patients are off cigarettes before their surgery, they better they will do after the procedure.Smoking and Age-Related Disorders
The following age-related conditions are thought to occur at higher rates in smokers than non-smokers:
All burning tobacco products produce secondhand smoke. About 126 million non-smokers are exposed to secondhand smoke each year -- almost 22 million of them are children ages 3 - 11. Secondhand smoke from parents has been shown to affect infants' lungs as early as the first 2 - 10 weeks of life. This abnormal lung function could persist throughout a child's life.
Exposure to secondhand smoke in the home increases the risk for:
Being exposed to secondhand smoke also increases the risk for heart attacks and lung cancer.
More and more households in the United States are banning smoking. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that 75% of households forbid smoking at any time or place.
Smoking bans are extending to public places, as well. In 2002, Delaware became the first state to institute a smoke-free law. Since then, smoking bans have spread across the country. Currently, 26 states have laws prohibiting smoking in restaurants, bars, and offices. Ten other states have laws banning smoking in some of these places.
The risk of heart attacks in communities that enforce smoking bans has decreased by 17% overall. Younger people and non-smokers seem to benefit the most from such bans.
It's never too late to quit smoking. According to the American Cancer Society, about half of all smokers who keep smoking will die from a smoking-related disease. Quitting has immediate health benefits.
According to the National Institutes of Health, about 40% of smokers who want to quit make a serious attempt to do so each year, but fewer than 5% actually succeed. Available smoking cessation products and therapies are greatly underused. If more smokers asked for or were offered such help, quit rates could double or triple.
Some people have genes that make quitting easier. Researchers have identified more than 200 genes in people who have successfully quit smoking. The discovery of these genes could lead to new smoking cessation therapies that target a person's specific genetic makeup.
Nicotine replacement therapy involves the use of products that provide low doses of nicotine, without the contaminants found in smoke. The goal of therapy is to relieve cravings for nicotine and ease the symptoms of withdrawal.
In general, nicotine replacement therapy benefits moderate-to-heavy smokers the most. However, it does appear somewhat helpful for light smokers (people who smoke fewer than 15 cigarettes a day).
Combining nicotine replacement therapies may be more effective than using one alone. For example, a combination of the nicotine patch and nicotine gum, nasal spray, or lozenge helps smokers go smoke-free for a longer period of time before relapsing. Adding bupropion to nicotine replacement therapy also increases the chance for success.
Nicotine Patches. Nicotine patches deliver nicotine through the skin. This is called transdermal nicotine delivery. It is effective at reducing withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine patches are available over the counter.
Patches work in different ways:
How patches are applied and used:
Store and discard patches safely, particularly in homes with young children. Children have been poisoned and have gotten sick from wearing, chewing, or sucking on nicotine patches. Children should not come in contact with the patches, even while the smoker is wearing them. If a child puts on a patch, remove it and wash the affected skin right away. A child who has eaten nicotine or worn a patch for a long period of time may need urgent medical care.
Nicotine Gum. Nicotine gum (Nicorette) is available over the counter and has helped many people quit. Some people prefer gum to the patch because they can control the nicotine dosage, and chewing satisfies the oral urge associated with smoking.
Tips for using the gum:
Some people prefer other methods or cannot use the gum for the following reasons:
Long-term dependence may be a problem with nicotine gum. Experts do not recommend that people chew nicotine gum for more than 6 months.
The Nicotine Inhaler. The nicotine inhaler resembles a plastic cigarette holder. It requires a prescription in the United States. The inhaler comes with several nicotine cartridges, which are inserted into the inhaler and "puffed" for about 20 minutes, up to 16 times a day. The dose is gradually decreased.
Several studies have reported that the inhaler triples quit rates (between 17 and 28%) compared with a placebo (6 - 9%) after 6 months. The inhaler has some advantages over other nicotine replacement products:
Using a combination of the inhaler and the patch may be more effective than either method alone.
Electronic cigarettes (E-Cigarettes). Electronic cigarettes are cigarette-, cigar-, or pipe-shaped devices that deliver nicotine or other substances in the form of a vapor. Electronic cigarettes are marketed as quit-smoking aids because they are designed to give the feeling of smoking without actually lighting up.
Research suggests that e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking real cigarettes. In one study, 70% of people who smoked e-cigarettes more than 20 times a day quit smoking tobacco cigarettes, and a third of people who used them were able to stay off cigarettes for 6 months. However, because of concerns about e-cigarettes' safety, the FDA plans to regulate them just as it does tobacco products. This will require, among other things, that e-cigarette manufacturers provide the government with a list of ingredients contained in their products.
The Nicotine Nasal Spray. The nasal spray satisfies immediate cravings by providing fast doses of nicotine. (Nicotine levels peak within 5 - 10 minutes after administering the spray.) It may be useful together with slower-acting nicotine replacement therapies.
The spray can irritate the nose, eyes, and throat, so it may not be suitable for people with allergies or sinus infections. Most people, however, can tolerate the side effects, which usually go away within the first few days.
Nicotine Lozenge. A nicotine lozenge (Commit) is available over the counter. It is made from pressed tobacco and comes in two strengths for heavier or lighter smokers. Suck on one piece every 1 - 2 hours, then gradually taper off your use. Don't eat or drink 15 minutes before using a lozenge, and don't take more than 20 lozenges a day. Side effects include heartburn, hiccups, nausea, headaches, and cough. The Commit lozenge also contains phenylalanine, a chemical that certain people may need to avoid.
Facts about Nicotine Replacement Therapy:
Side Effects. Side effects of any nicotine replacement product may include headaches, nausea, and other gastrointestinal problems. People often experience sleeplessness in the first few days, particularly with the patch, but the insomnia usually passes. Patients using very high doses of nicotine are more likely to have symptoms. Reducing the dose can prevent these symptoms.
Special Concerns for Specific Individuals. There has been some concern that the patch might be harmful for people with heart or circulatory disease, but studies are finding that it actually poses no danger for these individuals. In fact, the patch may help reduce angina attacks brought on by exercise. However, unhealthy cholesterol levels (lower HDL levels) caused by smoking will not improve with the nicotine patch. HDL levels will only improve when all nicotine is stopped.
Nicotine replacement may not be completely safe in pregnant women, although it has been used successfully in this group without problems. The unborn children of women who use the patch may have an increased heart rate.
Nicotine Products and Children. Keep all nicotine products away from children. Nicotine is a poison. Call a physician or poison control center immediately if a child has been exposed to a nicotine replacement product, even for a short period of time. Also call the doctor if a child has been exposed to a nicotine product and has any symptoms, including upset stomach, irritability, headache, rash, or fatigue.
Warnings Against Long-Term Use. No one should use nicotine replacement therapies as a long-term substitute for smoking. Any nicotine replacement therapy should only be used temporarily.Antidepressants for Smoking Cessation
Bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin). Bupropion is a type of antidepressant that is also FDA-approved for smoking cessation. Bupropion differs from most other antidepressants in that it increases the effects of dopamine, the brain chemical that appears to play a strong role in nicotine addiction. Using bupropion along with nicotine replacement therapy may help control cigarette cravings.
People usually start taking bupropion a week or two before quitting, and continue taking it for 7 - 12 weeks. The usual maintenance dose is a 150 mg tablet taken twice a day. No single dose should be higher than 150 mg.
Side effects of bupropion include:
In very rare cases, seizures have occurred, although usually in people who exceeded the recommended dose or who were already at risk for seizures.
Warning about Bupropion: In July 2009, the FDA required the makers of bupropion to add a Boxed Warning (the strongest possible warning) regarding serious mental health side effects that may occur while using the medication. These potentially serious side effects include "changes in behavior, hostility, agitation, depressed mood, suicidal thoughts and behavior, and attempted suicide." Patients taking this medication, as well as their family members, should be aware of these potential dangers and report any symptoms to their doctor immediately. Patients are also advised to stop taking the medication immediately if any of these symptoms occur.
Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl). The tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline may reduce the actions of nicotine and help smokers quit. Quit rates with this medication are as high as 30%. Long-term abstinence rates are more than twice those of placebo (sugar pill). It is best to start taking this medication 10 - 28 days before your intended quit date.
Side effects of nortriptyline include:
In rare cases, tricyclic antidepressants like nortriptyline can have more serious side effects. An overdose can be deadly. Tricyclics may also pose a danger for patients with certain types of heart disease.
Varenicline. A newer drug called varenicline (Chantix) may work significantly better than bupropion. Unlike bupropion, it targets nicotine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce cravings. Varenicline can also help people wean themselves off smokeless tobacco.
Cigarette smokers ages 18 and older can use varenicline. This drug should not be combined with nicotine replacement therapy.
Warnings about varenicline (Chantix): Varenicline carries a Boxed Warning regarding serious mental health side effects that may occur while using the medication, or immediately after stopping it. These uncommon but potentially serious side effects include "changes in behavior, agitation, depressed mood, suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior." Recently, the FDA updated the varenicline label, after the drug was associated with an increased risk for heart problems, such as a heart attack and abnormal heart rhythms. Patients who take this medication should be aware of these potential dangers and report any symptoms to their doctor immediately.Behavioral Methods and Counseling
Everyone who quits should aim to quit completely. Quitting completely is essential to regaining good health and reversing the harmful effects caused by smoking. Just reducing smoking, even by half, does not eliminate the risk for cancer and other health problems. Although smokers who cut back take in less smoke and nicotine, their bodies are still unable to heal completely from the ongoing intake of toxins. Changing to low-tar cigarettes is also not a solution. In fact, people who smoke these cigarettes tend to inhale more deeply, which may increase their health risks.
Most people who return to smoking "cheat" in the first few weeks. To help you make a quit-smoking plan and stick to it:
Create a List
Write down 10 reasons to quit. In addition to health reasons, the list might include:
Read the list often during the quitting process to help you stay motivated.
Decide on a Specific Quit Date
Some people find it helpful to choose a date when they anticipate having little or no stress for at least 3 days. Once you've chosen a date:
If quitting cold turkey isn't for you, gradually stopping is an equally effective approach. Reducing the number of cigarettes you smoke before your quit day might work just as well as stopping all at once.
Make an Oath
Take an extreme oath. For example, "If I smoke one more cigarette my dog will die." Although this seems absurd, some people who have failed with all other methods have reported that they quit completely and successfully after taking such an oath.
Let the Body and Mind Heal During Withdrawal
Get Family and Friends Involved
Studies continue to show that smokers who exercise can greatly increase their ability to quit smoking and reduce their risk for weight gain. When you have cravings:
Older people and anyone with health problems should consult their health care provider before starting an exercise program.
Maintain a Healthy Diet
Change Daily Habits
About 4% of smokers who quit without any outside help succeed. Nevertheless, most people try to quit alone. The primary obstacle to quitting on your own is eliminating the habits associated with smoking. Excellent books, CDs, and manuals are available to help you quit on your own.
Smokers who use outside help have better luck, with success rates of 25 - 35%. Those who are counseled in addition to using nicotine replacement and bupropion have the best chance at quitting. Varenicline can double or triple your odds of staying off cigarettes.
Talking with a counselor can also help. Telephone counseling has been shown very effective for quitting smokeless tobacco.Types of Behavioral Approaches
Problem Solving or Coping Strategies. Smokers are more likely to quit smoking when they learn thinking (cognitive) and behavioral techniques, stress management techniques, and ways to handle the symptoms of withdrawal and the urge to relapse. Smokers should look for programs that offer the following:
The Staged Approach. The staged approach customizes quitting interventions for each person, rather than using one general method. This approach takes the smoker through six stages of behavioral interventions:
People who follow this approach do not proceed from one stage to another in a step-by-step fashion. Instead, they cycle or spiral back and forth. Some people may move from stage 1 to 2 to 3, and then back to 2 again. You can stay in maintenance mode for years and then fall back to stage 2. Remember that this is normal -- if you tried quitting in the past and didn't stick with it, don't consider yourself a failure. Just try again.
Stage 1: Pre-Contemplation.
People at this stage have no plans or desire to stop smoking. They aren't even considering quitting. They may be unaware of the benefits of quitting. Or, they may have failed while trying to quit in the past and given up. There's no point in talking about how to start a smoking cessation program at this stage. Instead, it is important to think about how quitting will help you feel better, have more confidence, or live longer. You must identify the benefits before you will consider quitting. If you are at this stage, it can help to ask several friends or family members why they quit smoking.
Stage 2: Contemplation.
A person at this stage is thinking, "I think I should probably quit, but I need help getting started." People at this stage know that quitting is good for them, but it seems like a daunting task or they don't think they can pull it off. Some may have tried and failed in the past. If you are at this stage, write down (brainstorm) all of your potential roadblocks -- the things that you believe make quitting difficult -- and learn strategies to overcome or sidestep those hurdles. People at this stage might benefit from making a pledge, contract, or other commitment.
Stage 3: Preparation.
Smokers at this stage are ready to quit. The goal now is to create a specific action plan. You need to know which smoking cessation methods work and what support exists to help you quit. If you are at this stage, consider some backup plans -- what to do when the urge to smoke hits you.
Stage 4: Action!
People at this stage have just quit. This stage is where the most behavioral change occurs. It requires significant commitment and energy. If you are at this stage, keep talking to friends and family for inspiration. Review your backup plans. Reward yourself for small achievements. Having a fellow smoker quit with you can be a huge support as you both get through this stage.
Stage 5: Maintenance.
People at this stage have been smoke-free for at least 6 months. The goal now is to prevent a relapse. If you are at this stage, continue to be wary of roadblocks and keep reminding yourself of the benefits you have gained. Consider what you have enjoyed most about being smoke-free.Alternative Methods for Quitting
Hypnosis. Although rigorous studies on hypnosis are lacking, some people report successfully quitting after hypnosis sessions. Hypnosis is only effective if you trust the therapist and can feel completely at ease in the vulnerable and passive state necessary for hypnotic suggestion.
Hypnosis sessions usually take about 1 hour. During a typical session, the hypnotherapist will use various techniques (such as imagery and silent counting) to put you into a relaxed state.
When you are very relaxed, but not asleep, the hypnotherapist will quietly suggest motivations for not smoking. The hypnotherapist should also reinforce a positive self-image while you are in deep relaxation. This helps many people avoid the depression that can accompany withdrawal.
You should be taught methods of self-hypnosis to use at home, and have one follow-up session to reinforce what you've learned.
Acupuncture and Acupressure. There is no scientific evidence that acupuncture helps people quit smoking, although this method is safe to try. The acupuncture technique for quitting smoking usually uses very tiny curved staples inserted into three different points around the edge of the ear. The procedure is painless. You will be told to press each staple in a certain order for a few seconds whenever you crave a cigarette. The acupuncturist may also use acupuncture points on other parts of your body. There are no side effects, except for some soreness if you press the acupuncture staple too hard.
A related technique called acupressure involves pressing certain points on your body when a craving hits. Some studies have reported good quit rates with acupuncture, but few rigorous studies have been conducted on acupressure.Public Health Efforts and Social Pressure (Denormalization)
Denormalization is the idea that smoking is no longer normal. Examples include:
Increasing taxes on cigarettes may be one of the most important methods for reducing smoking in the general population, particularly in younger people.
Evidence suggests that banning smoking in work and public places may lead to a higher quit rate than in places where smoking is permitted.
Symptoms of Withdrawal
After you quit smoking, you will have some withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms generally peak in intensity 3 - 5 days after you quit, and usually disappear after 2 weeks, although some may persist for several months.
The symptoms of withdrawal are both physical and mental.
Treat withdrawal symptoms just like you would treat physical symptoms from an illness or disease.
Mental and Emotional Symptoms. Cravings can build up during withdrawal, sometimes to a nearly intolerable point. Nearly every moderate-to-heavy smoker who quits experiences more than one of the following emotional and mental responses to withdrawal:
The first signs of nicotine withdrawal can appear within 30 minutes of a smoker's last cigarette. Within 3 hours, the person may experience anxiety, sadness, and difficulty concentrating.Long-Term Depression
Depression is common in smokers during withdrawal and over the long term. In the short term, it can mimic the feelings of grief that a person might experience after the loss of a loved one.
Cigarette smoking is strongly linked to depression. People who are already prone to depression have a 25% chance of becoming depressed when they quit smoking, and this increased risk persists for at least 6 months. What's more, depressed smokers are very unlikely to quit successfully. Only about 6% remain smoke-free after a year. Reasons for this include:
If you experience depression while quitting, try a combination of emotionally supportive therapy, nicotine replacement, and antidepressants such as bupropion (Zyban). If severe depression lasts beyond the withdrawal period, seek professional help as soon as possible.Weight Gain
Quitting smoking does increase the risk for weight gain. Smoking uses up calories -- about 200 calories a day. Burning calories helps you lose weight. After quitting smoking, your body's metabolism slows down, so you burn food more slowly. On top of that, quitting may give you the urge to snack more often.
Smokers who quit gain an average of 11 pounds by the end of their first year, and an extra 6 - 7 pounds in the next 4 years. However, the fear of weight gain shouldn't stop you from quitting smoking. Instead, you should use weight-control measures after quitting.
How to Keep the Weight Off After Smoking. Exercise is very helpful for controlling weight. To burn the same amount of calories as you did while smoking, take an extra 15-minute daily walk and eliminate 100 calories a day. Just a moderate increase in physical activity can keep weight gain to a minimum. Nicotine replacement therapy can also help prevent weight gain.
Combining behavioral therapy for smoking-related weight gain with the antidepressant bupropion can help people who are worried about gaining weight after quitting stop smoking for longer.
[See the Quitting Smoking section in this report.]
Failure to Quit
Biological, psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors all play a role in nicotine addiction, making smoking one of the hardest addictions to beat. About half of people who quit return to smoking. Even after years of not smoking, some ex-smokers still have occasional cravings for cigarettes.
In addition to depression, there are three other major reasons why people have a hard time quitting:
The first 2 weeks of smoking cessation are critical to the overall success of the program. Smokers should seek all the help they can get during this period. Although withdrawal symptoms can be intense, treatments are available to reduce them.
Attempts to quit are never a waste of time, because you reduce the amount you smoke during these periods. People who keep trying have a 50 - 50 chance of finally quitting.Risk Factors for Failure
Researchers have been trying to discover risk factors or sets of behaviors that can help predict why some people aren't able to quit smoking. Factors include:
However, only one factor consistently leads to failure in quitting. Cheating during the first 2 weeks of withdrawal nearly guarantees that a person will smoke again in 6 months.Women and Smoking
Studies show that women have a harder time trying to quit smoking and have less success with abstinence programs than men. There are many possible reasons for this gender inequality:
On the positive side, evidence suggests that when women quit, their lung function improves more rapidly than in men who quit.
Smokers and former smokers should immediately begin to implement a healthier lifestyle and change any other behaviors that might be damaging their health.Healthy Diet
Maintain a healthy diet by eating:
Regular exercise reduces a smoker's risk of heart disease (although still not to the level of a non-smoker). Exercise does not lower a smoker's risk for lung cancer or emphysema, however.Regular Check-Ups
If you smoke, you should be screened for any smoking-related disorders:
A recent study found that having three annual computed tomography (CT) scans can reduce lung cancer deaths in smokers by 20%. However, screening CT scans produce many false-positive results. This means that many people have suspicious findings on a CT scan that do not turn out to be cancer after a lung biopsy is done. More research is needed to determine whether there is an overall benefit to CT screening for smokers.
Boffetta P, Straif K. Use of smokeless tobacco and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b3060.
Brion MJ,Victoria C, Matijasevich A, Horta B, Anselmi L, Steer C, et al. Maternal smoking and child psychological problems: disentangling causal and noncausal effects. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e57-e65.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette use among high school students -- United States, 1991 - 2009. MMWR. 2010;59(26):797-801.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Health Interview Survey -- 2008: Early Release. 8/2009. Available online.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State smoke-free laws for worksites, restaurants, and bars -- United States, 2000-2010. MMWR. 2011;60(15):472-475.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-specific trends in lung cancer incidence and smoking -- United States, 1999-2008. MMWR. 2011;60(36):1243-1247.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: Cigarette smoking among adults aged > or = 18 years -- United States, 2009. MMWR. 2010;59(Early Release):1-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged > or = 18 years -- United States, 2005-2010. MMWR. 2011;60(35):1207-1212.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: Nonsmokers' exposure to secondhand smoke -- United States, 1999-2008. MMWR. 2010;59(Early Release):7-12.
Chandler MA, Rennard SI. Smoking cessation. Chest. 2010;137(2):428-435.
Ebbert J, Montori VM, Erwin PJ, Stead LF. Interventions for smokeless tobacco use cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2):CD004306.
Freedman ND, Silverman DT, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC. Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women. JAMA. 2011;306(7):737-745.
Infante M, Cavuto S, Lutman FR, et al. A randomized study of lung cancer screening with spiral computed tomography: three-year results from the DANTE trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180(5):445-453.
Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Chan JM, Giovannucci E. Smoking and prostate cancer survival and recurrence. JAMA. 2011;305(24):2548-2555.
Klein R, Cruickshanks KJ, Nash SD, Krantz EM, Javier Nieto F, Huang GH, et al. The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and associated risk factors. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128(6):750-758.
Ladeiras-Lopes R, Pereira AK, Nogueira A, ey al. Smoking and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19(7):689-701.
Leonardi-Bee J, Britton J, Venn A. Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011;127(4):734-741.
Levine D. Bupriopion and cognitive behavioral therapy for weight-concerned women smokers. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(6):543-550.
Lindson N, Aveyard P, Hughes JR. Reduction versus abrupt cessation in smokers who want to quit. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010: Mar 17;3:CD008033.
Meyers DG, Neuberger JS, He J. Cardiovascular effect of bans on smoking in public places: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(14):1249-1255.
Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.
Pierce JP, Messer K, White MM, Cowling DW, Thomas DP. Prevalence of heavy smoking in California and the United States, 1965-2007. JAMA. 2011;305(11):1106-1112.
Piper ME, Smith SS, Schlam TR, Fiore MC, Jorenby DE, Fraser D, Baker TB. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(11):1253-1262.
Pratt LA, Brody DJ. Depression and smoking in the U.S. household population age 20 and over, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief No. 34, published online April 14, 2010.
Riala K, Hakko H, Rasanen P; Study-70 Workgroup. Nicotine dependence is associated with suicide attempts and self-mutilation among adolescent females. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50(4):293-298.
Rodriguez J, Jiang R, Johnson WC, MacKenzie BA, Smith LJ, Barr RG. The association of pipe and cigar use with cotinine levels, lung function, and airway obstruction: a cross-sectional study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(4):201-210.
Rusanen M, Kivipelto M, Quesenberry CP, Zhou J, Whitmer RA. Heavy smoking in midlife and long-term risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Ann Intern Med. 2011;171(4):333-339.
Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Vollset SE, et al. Mid-pregnancy cotinine and risks of orofacial clefts and neural tube defects. J Pediatr. 2009;154(1):17-9.
Siegel MB, Tanwar KL, Wood KS. Electronic cigarettes as a smoking-cessation tool. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40(4):472-475.
Singh S, Loke YK, Spangler JG, Furberg CD. Risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with varenicline: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2011;182(12):1359-1366.
Sutfin EL, McCoy TP, Reboussin BA, Wagoner KG, Spangler J, Wolfson M. Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;115(1-2):131-136.
The National Lung Screening Trial Research Team. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:395-409.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Information for Healthcare Professionals: Varenicline (marketed as Chantix) and Bupropion (marketed as Zyban, Wellbutrin, and generics). FDA ALERT [7/1/2009]. Available online.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Counseling and interventions to prevent tobacco use and tobacco-caused disease in adults and pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Arch Intern Med. 2009;150(8):551-555.
Winickoff JP, Van Cleave J, Oreskovic NM. Tobacco smoke exposure and chronic conditions of childhood. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e251-e252.
Related ItemsRelated Reports
Non-small cell lung cancer
Coronary artery disease
Heart attack and acute coronary syndrome
High blood pressure
Weight control and diet
Peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication
Smoking - tips on how to quit
Risks of tobacco
Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive
Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular
Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open
Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries
Peripheral artery bypass - leg
Review Date: 10/31/2011
Reviewed By: Reviewed by: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC'saccreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorousstandards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information andservices. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorialpolicy, editorialprocess, and privacypolicy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch.)
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatmentof any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication ordistribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.