Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients.
Nutrition - inadequate
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
There are a number of causes of malnutrition. It may result from:
- Inadequate or unbalanced diet
- Problems with digestion or absorption
- Certain medical conditions
Malnutrition can occur if you do not eat enough food. Starvation is a form of malnutrition.
You may develop malnutrition if you lack of a single vitamin in the diet.
In some cases, malnutrition is very mild and causes no symptoms. However, sometimes it can be so severe that the damage done to the body is permanent, even though you survive.
Malnutrition continues to be a significant problem all over the world, especially among children. Poverty, natural disasters, political problems, and war all contribute to conditions -- even epidemics -- of malnutrition and starvation, and not just in developing countries.
- Binge eating
- Deficiency - Vitamin A
- Deficiency - Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- Deficiency - Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
- Deficiency - Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
- Deficiency - Vitamin B9 (folacin)
- Deficiency - Vitamin E
- Deficiency - Vitamin K
- Eating disorders
- Food guide plate
- Megaloblastic anemia
- Spina bifida
Symptoms vary and depend on what is causing the malnutrition. However, some general symptoms include fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss.
Signs and tests
Testing depends on the specific disorder. Most work-ups include nutritional assessments and blood work.
Treatment usually consists of replacing missing nutrients, treating symptoms as needed, and treating any underlying medical condition.
The outlook depends on the cause of the malnutrition. Most nutritional deficiencies can be corrected. However, if malnutrition is caused by a medical condition, that illness has to be treated in order to reverse the nutritional deficiency.
If untreated, malnutrition can lead to mental or physical disability, illness, and possibly death.
Calling your health care provider
Discuss the risk of malnutrition with your health care provider. Treatment is necessary if you or your child have any changes in the body's ability to function. Contact your health care provider if the following symptoms develop:
- Lack of menstruation
- Lack of growth in children
- Rapid hair loss
Eating a good, well-balanced diet helps to prevent most forms of malnutrition.
Grover Z, Ee LC. Protein energy malnutrition. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;56(5):1055-68.
Visvanathan R, Chapman IM. Undernutrition and anorexia in the older person. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009 Sep;38(3):393-409.
Suskind DL. Nutritional deficiencies during normal growth. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;56(5):1035-53.
Kirby M, Danner E. Nutritional deficiencies in children on restricted diets. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;56(5):1085-103.
Reviewed by:A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, and David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine (4/30/2011).
A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorousstandards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information andservices. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorialpolicy, editorialprocess, and privacypolicy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch.)
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatmentof any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 2014 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication ordistribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.