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Torticollis is a twisted neck in which the head is tipped to one side, while the chin is turned to the other.
Wry neck; Loxia
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Torticollis may be:
If the condition occurs without a known cause, it is called idiopathic torticollis.
Torticollis may develop in childhood or adulthood. Congenital torticollis (present at birth) may occur if the baby's head was in the wrong position while growing in the womb, or if the muscles or blood supply to the neck are injured.
Signs and tests
Tests or procedures may be done to rule out possible causes of head and neck pain. A physical examination will show:
Tests that may be done include:
Treating torticollis that is present at birth involves stretching the shortened neck muscle. Passive stretching and positioning are used in infants and small children. These treatments are often successful, especially if they are started within 3 months of birth.
Surgery to correct the neck muscle may be done in the preschool years, if other treatment methods fail.
Torticollis that is caused by damage to the nervous system, spine, or muscles is treated by identifying the cause of the disorder.
The condition may be easier to treat in infants and children. If torticollis becomes chronic, numbness and tingling may develop due to pressure on the nerve roots in the neck.
The muscle itself may become large (hypertrophic) due to constant stimulation and exercise.
Complications may include:
Calling your health care provider
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if symptoms do not improve with treatment, or if new symptoms develop.
Torticollis that occurs after an injury or with illness may be serious. Seek immediate medical help if this occurs.
While there is no known way to prevent this condition, early treatment may prevent it from getting worse.
Spiegel DA, Hosalkar HS, Dormans JP, Drommond DS. The neck. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap. 679.
Persing J. Prevention and management of positional skull deformities in infants. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Plastic Surgery and Section on Neurological Surgery. Pediatrics. 2003;112:199-202.
Patel M, Shah K. Orthopedics. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 42.
Reviewed by:Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, and Department of Anatomy at UCSF, San Francisco, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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