Takayasu arteritis is an inflammation of the aorta -- the artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body -- and its major branches.
See also: Aortic arch syndrome
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The cause of Takayasu arteritis is unknown. The disease occurs mainly in children and women younger than 30, especially those who are of Asian or African descent.
It appears to be an autoimmune condition, where immune cells are wrongly targeted against the body's own tissues, and it may involve other systems.
- Arm weakness or pain with use
- Chest pain
- Muscle or joint pain
- Skin rash
- Night sweats
- Vision changes
- Weight loss
Signs and tests
- Decreased radial pulses (at the wrist)
- Difference in blood pressure between the two arms
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- C-reactive protein (CRP)
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- X-ray of the chest
Treatment of Takayasu arteritis is difficult, but patients who do have the right treatment can see positive results. Early detection is important.
Most patients are treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Surgery is reserved for complications caused by narrowed arteries.
This disease can be fatal. However, with a combination of aggressive medical and surgical treatment, death rates have dropped dramatically.
In well managed cases of Takayasu arteritis, the long-term survival rate is greater than 90%. The survival rate is better for adults than for children.
- Blood clot
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of this condition. Weak pulse, chest pain, and breathing difficulty require immediate care.
ReferencesMaksimowicz-McKinnon K, Hoffman GS. Takayasu arteritis: what is the long-term prognosis? Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2007;33:777-786.
Reviewed by:Ariel D. Teitel, MD, MBA, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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