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Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by different disorders that damage the kidneys. This damage leads to the release of too much protein in the urine.
This condition can also occur from:
It can occur with kidney disorders such as:
Nephrotic syndrome can affect all age groups. In children, it is most common between ages 2 and 6. This disorder occurs slightly more often in males than females.
Swelling (edema) is the most common symptom. It may occur:
Other symptoms include:
Signs and tests
The doctor will perform a physical exam. Laboratory tests will be done to see how well the kidneys are working. They include:
Fats are often also present in the urine. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be high.
A kidney biopsy may be needed to find the cause of the disorder.
Tests to rule out various causes may include the following:
This disease may also change the results of the following tests:
The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and delay kidney damage. To control nephrotic syndrome, you must treat the disorder that is causing it. You may need treatment for life.
Some people may eventually need dialysis and a kidney transplant.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if:
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have convulsions.
Treating conditions that can cause nephrotic syndrome may help prevent the syndrome.
Appel GB. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 122.
Nachman PH, Jennette JC, Falk RJ. Primary glomerular disease. In: Brenner BM, ed. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 30.
Reviewed by:David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Herbert Y. Lin, MD, PhD, Nephrologist, Massachusetts General Hospital, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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