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Insulin resistance syndrome; Syndrome X
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Metabolic syndrome is becoming more and more common in the United States. Researchers are not sure whether the syndrome is due to one single cause, but all of the risks for the syndrome are related to obesity.
The two most important risk factors for metabolic syndrome are:
Other risk factors include:
People who have metabolic syndrome often have two other problems that can either cause the condition or make it worse:
Signs and tests
Metabolic syndrome is present if you have three or more of the following signs:
The goal of treatment is to reduce your risk of heart disease and diabetes.
Your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes or medicines to help reduce your blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and blood sugar.
Some people may benefit from daily low-dose aspirin.
People who smoke should quit.
People with metabolic syndrome have an increased long-term risk for developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, kidney disease, and poor blood supply to the legs.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you have signs or symptoms of this condition.
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Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120:1640-1645.
Rosenzweig JL, Ferrannini E, Grundy SM, Haffner Sm, Heine RJ, Horton ES, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in patients at metabolic risk: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93:3671-3689.
Reviewed by:David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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